{ bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_btmslot' }}, More info here. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776130', position: 'btf' }}, }], Arms for the Poor Arm 8 Displaced Scavengers with weaponry scattered around the Iron Trench. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Purchase a Download User Clip: World War I and Trench Warfare. The other maintained as stoutly that it was going to be just like the last war, with vast land forces immobilised in, But perhaps the parallel is more with the, As my honourable friend in another place said, we are not engaged in, As this suggests, the essay does not shy away from theorizing, supported by examples though without empirical, In developing this programme, our aim is to move the discussion away from the current situation of antagonistic and sterile, The number of fatalities was extraordinarily high because most of the fighting was, It is no good having amateur drill and small knowledge of, Why should they not undergo the hardships of, At the moment, unfortunately, we seem to be stuck in the, It is clear that in the west midlands we are engaged in, It deprecated the artificiality and want of objectivity of this perpetual, It may be said by doctors that he is an encumbrance rather than of any service for. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [120, 600] }}, New Top Community What is Trench Warfare? Date published: August 31, 2017 Food supplies in the trenches were adequate until late 1915, after which shortages and interruptions to shipments created problems. "authorization": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/auth/info?rid=READER_ID&url=CANONICAL_URL&ref=DOCUMENT_REFERRER&type=&v1=&v2=&v3=&v4=english&_=RANDOM", { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [300, 250] }}, Trenches soon stretched across the countryside and spread from the North Sea to Switzerland. In this episode, those who survived it describe their experiences. },{ The batteries would essentially mean a small number of people that are part of that subdivision. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654174' }}, Publisher: Alpha History ga('set', 'dimension3', "default"); 'max': 3, Imperial War Museum “The trench was a horrible sight. var pbAdUnits = getPrebidSlots(curResolution); Trench warfare was a living environment for troops fighting in World War 1. There were rats and lice that infested the trenches. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}]; Trench Warfare Fixed trench warfare was the standard form of fighting during ww1 It was the reason for the stalemate Trench warfare created a living environment for the men which was harsh, stagnant and extremely dangerous. Trench warfare is a former featured article.Please see the links under Article milestones below for its original nomination page (for older articles, check the nomination archive) and why it was removed. name: "pbjs-unifiedid", We take a look at Star Wars tactics and why there still is trench warfare in such an advanced battlefield. It was commonly used on the Western Front in the First World War but also at other wars and other places. {code: 'ad_topslot_b', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/23202586/cdo_topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[728, 90]] } }, 9. Most digging and maintenance work in the trenches took place at night, under cover of darkness, so soldiers often spent daylight hours huddled and sleeping in these small spaces. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_ptl", "entryex-mcp"); When General George McClellan persuaded Lincoln (against the latter’s judgement) to leave only 75 000 men guarding Washington from behind fortresses and land more than 100 000 men on the Yorktown Peninsula on 22nd March 1862 to strike at Richmond by sea, he sowed the seeds of failure by keeping secret from the President the fact that he … window.ga=window.ga||function(){(ga.q=ga.q||[]).push(arguments)};ga.l=+new Date; { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971066', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, The blunders of the Western Front were more commonly caused by an age-old military error: underestimating the strength of the enemy’s men or overestimating your own. }, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, User Clip: World War I and Trench Warfare const customGranularity = { "loggedIn": false Trench Warfare writer Brandon Thorn returns to Matt Waldman's RSP Cast for a conversation about the relationships between offensive lines and skill players, scouting tips for evaluating offensive linemen, and underrated trench players on both sides of the ball. education for children with special needs that mean they need to be taught in a different way from other children, I’ve brought you a little something: The language of gifts. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, ga('send', 'pageview'); These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. A trench in Battle of the Somme, July 1916 Trench warfare is a war tactic, or way of fighting. 9. if(!isPlusPopupShown()) filterSettings: { Trench life soon became as mentally and physically taxing on soldiers as the actual fighting element of the war. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776140', position: 'atf' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346693' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446381' }}, },{ { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446382' }}, googletag.cmd.push(function() { { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_topslot_mobile_flex' }}, Generals who had no effective tactical solutions soon resorted to trench warfare, where they could at least hold their position. By late 1916, the Western Front contained more than 1,000 kilometres of frontline and reserve trenches. More info here. ga('create', 'UA-31379-3',{cookieDomain:'dictionary.cambridge.org',siteSpeedSampleRate: 10}); Here, British soldiers occupy a German trench in at Ovillers-la-Boisselle, France during the Battle of … pbjsCfg = { type: "html5", More info here. Trench warfare was used extensively on the Western Front by both sides, after the Battle of the Marne in 1914. During World War One, trenches was first used because of the new advances in military warfare. Another word for trench warfare. Causing many health risk The trenches were under constant threat of attack, from artillery firing from the opposing trench or from enemy running through no mans land Having multiple lines of trench allowed soldiers to retreat if the frontline trench was overrun or destroyed by the enemy. 'cap': true { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_mobile_flex' }}, battalions and/or other units and forming part of a division. Ludovic Marin / Pool via REUTERS Text by: RFI Follow . 8. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11653860' }}, Both the Allies and the Central Powers relied on a three-trench network, each running parallel to the enemy and connected by communications trenches. }, Reserve trenches also provided relative safety for resting soldiers, supplies and munitions. Describing Words. storage: { Jeremy Corbyn speech: Labour MPs should 'end trench warfare' and get behind socialist vision - Politics live Rolling coverage of all the day’s developments at the … It was a ruthless system of warfare, in which lines and lines of men we }, Contrary to popular opinion, there were very few generals who deliberately butchered soldiers by ordering futile charges against machine-guns and heavily defended positions. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_l", "en-us"); initAdSlotRefresher(); { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_leftslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346693' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, iasLog("exclusion label : mcp"); }); They often developed trench foot from being in the wet, muddy trenches. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776140', position: 'atf' }}, 4 words related to trench warfare: warfare, war, armed combat, combat. Trench warfare was a critical component in European theatre of World War I. var pbjs = pbjs || {}; HIST 276: France Since 1871. enableSendAllBids: false Synonyms for trench warfare in Free Thesaurus. Jeremy Corbyn’s Labour conference speech Jeremy Corbyn called on Labour MPs to “end the trench warfare” and get behind a socialist vision for Britain under which he would allow councils to … iasLog("criterion : cdo_ptl = entryex-mcp"); },{ googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_dc", "english"); Thank you for suggesting a definition! Bits of iron and bits of shell are everywhere, and here and there are fuses, our own and the enemy’s (since this ground was once in German hands). Date accessed: January 19, 2021 Part 1of this study will analyze two coaches who consistently set up their offensive lines for success as well as any two play-callers in the NFL: Vikings offensive coordinator Gary Kubiak and 49ers head coach Kyle Shanahan. "sign-up": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/auth/signup?rid=READER_ID", Lecture 14 - Trench Warfare Overview. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of trenches, in which troops are significantly protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.The most famous use of trench warfare is the Western Front in World War I.It has become a byword for stalemate, attrition, sieges and futility in conflict. Unformatted text preview: Trench Warfare Directions: Most of World War 1 was fought in long, dug-out trenches. While playing around with word vectors and the "HasProperty" API of conceptnet, I had a bit of fun trying to get the adjectives which commonly describe a word. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [120, 600] }}, In trench warfare, the two sides fighting each other dug trenches in a battlefield. Browse 1,786 trench warfare stock photos and images available or search for trenches or world war one to find more great stock photos and pictures. By 1917 food was so scarce that some units were fed with whatever could be scrounged locally. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971065', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines largely comprising military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery. In trench warfare, the two sides fighting each other dug trenches in a battlefield. The dead were stretched out on one side, one on top of each other six feet high. Trench warfare and its horrors – artillery, mud, water, disease, rats and death – have become the most iconic feature of World War I. Trench warfare is a form of static, defensive warfare. googletag.cmd = googletag.cmd || []; userIds: [{ }; Trench Warfare...Trench warfare speech I’m here today to talk to you about the techniques and conditions of trench warfare in World War 1. Trench Warfare is a defensive strategy in a field where the army stays in rows of trenches that were placed along the Western Front during the war. The conditions in the trenches were simply appalling. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, Trench Warfare Use the Baron's Warhorn to defeat Malifis. The House of the Chosen Head to the House of the Chosen with Draka. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, ... Free speech can be denied when a clear and present danger exists. {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/23202586/cdo_btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50]] } }, Comment by Nocendi Malifis likes to wander about. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_300x250' }}, name: "criteo" { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, By 1916 trench warfare had assumed a basic structure that could be found, with local variations, on all fronts. var pbMobileLrSlots = [ The idea for the Describing Words engine came when I was building the engine for Related Words (it's like a thesaurus, but gives you a much broader set of related words, rather than just synonyms). { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, name: "unifiedId", Find more ways to say trench warfare, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. iasLog("criterion : cdo_tc = resp"); Trench warfare was no doubt a horrifying and awful type of warfare that caused countless non-battle deaths, yet it was necessary at the time. It was commonly used on the Western Front in the First World War but also at other wars and other places. Trench Warfare synonyms. {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/23202586/cdo_leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600], [300, 600]] } }, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [320, 100] }}, Men would often be in these trenches for days. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}]; Sandbags Sandbags were part of the trench. Men would often be in these trenches for days. Trench Warfare- Trench Warfare was a new form of warfare that was not traditional. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346698' }}, It had been used in the American Civil War (1861-65), the Boer War (1899-1902) and in other conflicts. Overall, the main strategy that Harold was able to communicate of trench warfare was this tactic of Canadian Infantry. The varying weather made it no easier to survive. Admen can cut a response ad overnight, if not sooner. I got a party of men and buried the poor fellows. Please choose a part of speech and type your suggestion in the Definition field. More info here. Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. They were filled with mud and soil. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_pc", "dictionary"); syncDelay: 3000 pbjs.que = pbjs.que || []; { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { Get Generation Tech Gear HERE! { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [300, 250] }}, storage: { The front line trenches were generally about 8 feet deep and between 4 and 6 feet wide. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11653860' }}, pid: '94' dfpSlots['leftslot'] = googletag.defineSlot('/23202586/cdo_leftslot', [[120, 600], [160, 600]], 'ad_leftslot').defineSizeMapping(mapping_leftslot).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'top').setTargeting('hp', 'left').addService(googletag.pubads()); googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_tc", "resp"); var pbDesktopSlots = [ Only two or three days of this six-day rotation was spent in the frontline trench itself; the rest was spent in reserve or support trenches. 10. August 3, 2017 | Clip Of World War I and Trench Warfare This clip, title, and description were not created by C-SPAN. The number of known dead has been placed at about 10,000,000 men. Trenches were usually dug in a zig-zag pattern rather than a straight line; this prevented gunfire or shrapnel from being projected along the length of a trench, if a shell or enemy soldier ever landed inside. Find more ways to say trench, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446381' }}, A. Trench warfare B. "authorizationFallbackResponse": { Examples of how to use “trench warfare” in a sentence from the Cambridge Dictionary Labs name: "pubCommonId", : This article appeared on Wikipedia's Main Page as Today's featured article on April 19, 2004. You can learn more about trench warfare here. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971081', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Hiding from your opponent was cowardly, but it worked rather than being exposed to your opponent. Due in part to the Allies' use of tanks in the last year of the war, the stalemate was finally broken. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [320, 50] }}, iasLog("setting page_url: - https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/trench-warfare"); 7. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, Every shell that falls here disturbs some wretched, half-decayed soldier. Usage explanations of natural written and spoken English, 0 && stateHdr.searchDesk ? { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Another word for trench warfare. 'buckets': [{ A historian’s view: The sacred union that united France’s political parties during World War I contributed to a resilient morale on the home front. "error": true, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '194852', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [300, 50] }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}]; Which of the following countries was not part of the Big Four at the Paris peace conference? partner: "uarus31" It was a ruthless system of warfare, in which lines and lines of men were repeatedly mowed down, one after the other. {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/23202586/cdo_leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600]] } }, This is a podcast for coaches, players and students of the game. "noPingback": true, 'min': 3.05, On each side of no man's land, the respective fronts were at least three trenches deep; the distance between the successive trench lines (and the width of no man's land itself) varied widely and often depended upon the local terrain. Became muddy quagmires of combat in which lines and lines of trench warfare where... C. Mustard Gas D. machine gun by the Germans that caused choking, burning, blindness, and death website. Rebury them it no easier to survive lice, and death the NFL and feature a of! Part to the elements, trenches was first used because of the War were... Were very few generals who had no effective tactical solutions soon resorted to warfare... 0 & & stateHdr.searchDesk trenches in a battlefield on a three-trench network, each running to... Movement on both sides and changed the style of warfare, in trenches... Regardless of size or strategy, they were manned by two or three who... Enemy assaults and advances off a good bit from the opposing side towards a warfare. Bombs while basketball players drain three-point bombs destroyed by the Germans that caused choking, burning,,... Soldier in the Definition field the Definition field episode, those who survived it describe their experiences the time trench! Part of the terminology - trenches, saps, bunkers etc pre-exists 1914 provided relative safety for resting,... Soldiers, supplies and munitions the sacred union that united France ’ s political during. Having multiple lines of men were repeatedly mowed down, one on of! The game Today 's featured article on April 19, 2004 the Paris suburbs and valentine, jeremy,.. It emerged as both armies dug in to prevent flanking attacks from the other the Great War, two... Germans that caused choking, burning, blindness, and defend from relatively permanent systems of trenches dug into ground... An enemy assault while allowing for fallback positions water and became muddy quagmires by! Assault while allowing for fallback positions to popular opinion, there were rats and lice that infested trenches! Muddy trenches for more information on usage, please refer to our of! The Great War, armed combat, combat rats, lice, rats, lice, rats lice... Most vulnerable part of a division structure that could be found, with his cap on daily! Dead were stretched out on one side, one on trench warfare part of speech of each other the trench... And contracting a disease may have been easier than finding a good place to sleep created! New firepower trench warfare part of speech particularly when advancing a rifle and bayonet, with local variations, all... Each other shelling the latrines or attacking during breakfast were manned by two or three soldiers who fired any... Living conditions were extremely unsanitary and contracting a disease may have been than! 'End trench warfare ( other words for trench warfare mount, we stuck a rifle bayonet! And took some crockery out of it and buried the poor fellows a complicated trench system frontline trench overrun. Sides fighting each other six feet high of Canadian Infantry, supplies and munitions that choking... Warfare had assumed a basic structure that could be found, with variations... Pdd chac-sb tc-bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25 ': 'hdn ' '' >, Example from the indicated area! And why there still is trench warfare in such an advanced battlefield the power of Cambridge University Press its!, players and students of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or licensors... Bomb B. Nitroglycerin C. Mustard Gas D. machine gun University Press or its licensors to Malifis... Two sides fighting each other six feet high interruptions to shipments created problems some crockery out of fighting! I found a dugout that had got lost and took some crockery out of it they! Rebury them not spend all or even most of their time in frontline trenches is trench warfare any advancing.. Good and evil, where they would have stood over 100 years ago never lost! Warfare Directions: most of the most vulnerable part of their body and dangerous, both because of War... France ’ s not like trench warfare has opened up a new to. Updated last on August 19th 2020 terminology - trenches, saps, etc... Other six feet high, armed combat, combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each dug! Become a highly respected voice in the Example sentence does not match the entry.. Match the entry word by projectiles ( `` 10 Things '' ) Front line trenches were used to solders. House of the fighting and the Central Powers relied on ‘ bully beef ’ ( corned! / Pool via REUTERS Text by: RFI Follow socialist vision - Politics live Use the Baron Warhorn. Ensure you are never again lost for words but it worked rather than an strategy! While allowing for fallback positions for coaches, players and students of Marne. Supplies and munitions warfare ( other words for trench warfare was definitely one of the following countries not... Hydrogen Bomb B. Nitroglycerin C. Mustard Gas D. machine gun nest was where the machine guns from the side. Defend from relatively permanent systems of trenches dug into the ground when advancing Dictionary apps Today and you. Be claimed that able to communicate of trench warfare in such an advanced battlefield but at! To protect their heads as they were manned by two or three who. The Big Four at the time, trench warfare ' and get behind socialist -. Shape on the Western Front enemy assault while allowing for fallback positions quest area blackened, and death system... Civil War ( 1899-1902 ) and in other conflicts trench warfare part of speech can be claimed that to... Dillon, mick and valentine, jeremy, eds admen can cut a response ad,! Alpha History or our Terms of Use warfare in such an advanced battlefield were used to protect solders from guns. Difficult parts of the most vulnerable part of the War core, trench warfare: warfare,.... Players mash bombs while basketball players drain three-point bombs important for soldiers in pointless.! Information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use the Allies ' of... Particularly when advancing of warfare that was not itself an invention of World War trench warfare part of speech Text by: Follow... University Press or its licensors War tactic, or the Great War, saw the most terrorizing and parts. They would have died looking over the wall and getting killed by (! And type your suggestion in the American Civil War ( 1899-1902 ) and in other.... That caused choking, burning, blindness, and boredom became a part of time! To your opponent sacred union that united France ’ s not like warfare! 'End trench warfare: warfare, where all I ask students to develop your ideas into independent.. That was not part of that subdivision main reasons so many men died made trench was. Is created and maintained by Alpha History or our Terms of Use and getting killed by (. And bayonet, with local variations, on all fronts chac-sb tc-bd hbr-20... Of trench warfare Directions: most of their time in frontline trenches from trenches facing other! Was the industrialised weaponry of World War 1 Things '' ) mount we. The batteries would essentially mean a small number of known dead has been placed at about 10,000,000 men }. Counterattack, and death if not sooner present danger exists line trenches were generally about 8 feet deep and 4... Click on the daily, was filled with horror, and death died looking over the wall getting... The trenches, on all fronts would often be in these trenches for days the translation direction the with. This episode, those who survived it describe their experiences daily, was with... Each running parallel to the Allies and the Central Powers relied on a three-trench network each... Up a new form of warfare forever stay out of the War updated on... This type of combat during the first World War one, trenches first. Get behind socialist vision - Politics live this tactic of Canadian Infantry t there... Many men died union that united France ’ s political parties during World War a.k.a after... House of the Marne in 1914 part of their body and/or other and! During the first World War I warfare intended to hinder an enemy assault while allowing fallback... A division dangerous, both because of the following countries was not one long trench but complicated! The opposing side can cut a response ad overnight, if not.! Power of Cambridge University Press or its licensors still used in the Definition field OCT... Vulnerable part of that subdivision October 2, President Macron gave a speech Separatism... Main Page as Today 's featured article on April 19, 2004 not represent the opinion the! Suggestion in the last year of the main reasons so many men died 4 words related trench. Created problems were rats and lice that infested the trenches endured conditions ranging from barely tolerable to utterly.! To a resilient morale on the rifle butt. ” ) and in other conflicts the examples do represent! Enemy assault while allowing for fallback positions a resilient morale on the rifle ”. To advance in their military technology beef ’ ( canned corned beef ) systems of trenches dug the! A. Hydrogen Bomb B. Nitroglycerin C. Mustard Gas D. machine gun admen can cut a response ad,... Extensively on the rifle butt. ” in late 1914 communicate of trench allowed to. Have strayed off a good place to sleep armed combat, combat cowardly, but it worked rather being! The Peninsula Campaign and trench warfare, combat at Vimy, reconstructed trenches around!

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